AMERICAN ECO SYSTEMS  Elmosa Seawater Intake and Outfall Systems

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Elmosa USA

This intake system takes money
wedgewire

A conventional wedgewire T-screen intake rendered useless by zebra mussels; this is a typical REACTIVE  O&M-intensive  system, operational expenses (OpeX) are accumulatively high, while the InvisiHead is PROACTIVE and O&M-free, (OpeX=0)
This intake system makes money
 
IH anchored

Video

Coexistence at its best; performance unaffected; the IH serves as a habitat for marine biomass while delivering the design capacity of high quality flow at all times, see the video that was shot after 12 years in operation

Quality flow

The videos shows  peaceful coexistence with biomass while delivering full capacity of good quality flow, see the video


FM
Self-flow Management

      

                                                                
Flow Hydraulics Compariso
Platform

Outfall
A Feasibility Study for the Construction of a Next Generation Desalination Plant in New South Wales, Australia

Elmosa Complete System
EO to LD
Outfall Flow Mngmnt
High dilution ratio is reached near the outfall

Required dilution reached at the start of the near filed mixing zone
NatSep Sediment Separation
Anti biofouling chemical dispensing system
InvisiHead built-in anti biofouling injection system  like hypochlorite



vid
Elmosa Seawater Intake System
Outfall\
Elmosa Seawater Outfall System
Consultancy
Flow_input_in_4-D_X-Y-Z_space_in_time_T_through_the_InvisiHead_yields_an_output_of _Zs

Public Environmental Review Balmoral South Iron Ore Project
Balmoral South Iron Ore Project
Public Environmental Review
EPA Assessment No 1677
What the Australian EPA said about the InvisiHead: The IH technology surpasses the principles of Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (detailed in European Union Reference Document on the application of Best Available Techniques (BAT) to Industrial Cooling Systems: Dec 2001) for the selection, design and operation of cooling water systems and effluent discharge


CaliforniaPublicUtilities

What the California Public Utilities said about the InvisiHead-Page 8.7-135


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Home, The genuine and original Site-Specific Selective InvisiHead and NatSep technologies reside here at American Eco Systems
 
Next Generation Seawater Intake and Outfall System
  • InvisiHead-integrated site-recognition capabilities
Two InvisiHead innovative breakthroughs: 
1.    Environmental:  where it serves as a habitat for biomass safe and peaceful while sustaining high performance operation in all time and under all operation and weather conditions;
2.    Economical: where it saves OPEX to pay back its CAPEX. Read more.
Why the InvisiHead is a unique intake and outfall system:
Self-reliant and needs no manual or mechanical assistance or any human or machine interference during its operation.
We fine tune the shaping and curvaturing of the hyperbolic paraboloid InvisiHead structure for the flow streamlines taking off from the seafloor to resonate with site characteristics and floor community composition and eliminate floor community disturbance. The floor takeoff velocity is tuned during the design and fabrication to be lower than the terminal velocity of silt. Section 7 Biophysical Issues and Their Management, page URS 7-34
 

Elmosa Seawater Intake System Design: 1. The offshore upstream end InvisiHeadTM      2. The self-cleaning intake pipe   3. The downstream end flow-control NatSepTM basin
                              In-Out

The InvisiHead, smart super technology with site recognition capabilities, is great for sensitive, fragile, and critical environments such as spawning grounds or special habitats; it can be sandwiched and inserted under ice sheets  with an entrance velocities as low as 0.003m/s (0.01 fps),  The InvisiHead is a proactive tool. Proaction is acting in advance to deal with an expected difficulty. It is the action that initiates change as opposed to reaction to events. The ultimate goals of the InvisiHead are:
  • Environmental coexistence, and
  • Economic viability
These two goals are breakthroughs that make up the core features leading the InvisiHead to being an undisputed next generation technology. In addition, it is O&M-free or no operation or maintenance costs associated with system operation, relatively low in capital expenditure CAPEX and zero in operational expenses OpeX. It is usually less expensive and more economical than the conventional systems. See Tables 1and 2 below.

Mother Nature Operates the Elmosa Intake and Diffusion Systems; when Mother Nature runs a system, maintenance work ceases. Planet Earth turns around its axis at 1600 km/h and, at the same time, orbits at 110,000 km/h but never needed oiling, greasing or shaft replacement for more than 4.5 billion years of nonstop operation. We design the InvisiHead and shape up its paraboloid to fit and match site requirements in a process that qualifies it to be sponsored and run by Mother Nature. She made of the InvisiHead as a safe and peaceful habitat for biomass with zero reduction of operational performance as shown in the images below taking in 2018 of the the 3.4 m -3,500 m3/h IH installed back in 2006in the Caribbean Sea.

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The super low velocity InvisiHead detects pump energy pulses, recognizes site characteristics as well as operation conditions and application requirements, and commences flow management as planned.  It excludes SS and delivers high-quality flow. Best technology available (BTA) as per the US EPA Section 316(b); the InvisiHead meets and exceeds the Final Cooling Water Intake 316(b)Rule and EU BAT requirements.

Our Systems are designed to emphasize and assure:.
  • Proaction rather than reaction, unattractive to biomass, sediments or debris;
  • Execlusion and preservation rather than eradication, no impingement or fish mortality,
  • Prevention rather than curing, selective system, local marine currents sweep out suspended matter into the ambient through the opposite end.
Environmental Compliance
                                                                                                                    Coexistence at its best
. coexist2                                            coexist2

In the light of the increasing pollutants reaching the shores of seas around the world, the state of the ecosystem has changed a great deal over the last three decades. It has become unsafe to install onshore open intake systems without investing heavily in equipment to safeguard an interrupted flow. Going offshore and drawing the water from hundreds of meters away from the shoreline has become a sound alternative. Wave action effects, responsible for driving seaweed, sand and, silt, and debris ashore, tend to subside in deep waters. Locations relatively free of seaweed and less in fish concentrations and debris can be found in 10–15-meter (30-50 ft) depths. The wave turbulence is minimum in those depths and the water is usually very low in sand content and seaweed. Inferior designs of the upstream inlet of the pipelines can lead to creating high negative pressures at and around the inlet, which will result in the suction of sand, fish, seaweed and other debris..The Elmosa three-component intake system solely operated by Mother Nature.

RO_intake_network
This is an intake system configured for a 1,000,000 m3/d RO plant to be installed in the Persian Gulf area using 1600mm intake pipe system connecting to 20 InvisiHead systems

Economic viability
Payback

Also see Elmosa Offshore Intake systems vs. v-wire screens: Comparison between the InvisiHead and wedge-wire screen systems’
performance and stability as well as durability and economics
(1)

Potential users:
Power and desalination plants, petrochemical and gas complexes, refineries, aquaculture and fish farms, municipal wastewater systems, HVAC, Etc.

 
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The Elmosa 3-Component Seawater Intake System

1. The InvisiHead


Fitted to intake pipe and anchored to seafloor
Anchoring

Starting at the upstream end with the InvisiHead. It is a hydraulically invisible seawater intake velocity cap system fitted to the upstream end of the intake pipeline. The offshore distance depends on the site conditions and the requirements of the user. The depth of the upstream end where the InvisiHead is to be located should be deep enough to keep it submerged at all times, but the deeper is the better. It is safely fitted to the intake pipe and safely anchored to the seafloor. Entrance velocity is 0.09 m/s max(< 0.3 fps). The approach velocity is extremely slow. The InvisiHead entrance section is hydraulically fine-tuned in lab to optimize system hydraulics. The entrance dimensions are not arbitrarily selected but hydraulically calculated in a multi dimensional approach. Each dimension is a function of the steady flow velocity. Eddies through this approach are totally eliminated. The InvisiHead system can be supplied with a built-in anti biofouling dispensing system. The InvisiHead is extremely site-specific. There are no two sites identical even if located in the same neighborhood.  Each InvisiHead is paraboloidaly tailored to fit and match site characteristics and conditions. We collect site and operation data to get them integrated during the design and fabrication phases into the InvisiHead. We are actually implanting the site DNA in the InvisiHead to enable its site recognition capability. As soon as it receives seawater pump pulses, it recognizes the site and manages the flow accordingly. The site-oriented paraboloidal shaping of the InvisiHead structure enables it to fine-tune and locate the sea floor takeoff points of the lowermost flow streamline bundles and control and reduce floor community disturbance and prevent fine-sediment pickup; that is why it is ideal for SWRO desalination since it is low on SDI and requires less pretreatment. LEARN MORE

2. The Intake Pipeline






The pipeline connects the InvisiHead-the upstream end located offshore with the downstream end the NatSep separation basin located onshore. It can be of steel, steel lined with polyethylene, concrete, GRP, or high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe. We apply the Elmosa Velocity Envelop  (EVE) during intake pipe configuration to maximize system stability and operation flexibility and sustain self-cleansing to prevent sediment settlement and marine growth inside the pipe. 
3. The NatSep Separation Basin




The NatSep is where whatever sand and debris that may flow into the InvisiHead get naturally separated to settle at the NatSep intake basin remain in the sediment storage zone. The flow reaching the pumps is clean and free of sand and debris. Cleaning of the NatSep basin is done as frequent as needed but may never be needed. Elmosa has discontinued the use of all screening systems including stationary and traveling screens. The NatSep patented design helped eliminate standard screening processes. The Elmosa default target sediment is very fine sand (125 µm) or larger. The NatSep can be configured to remove finer sediment then the default size if required. The flow through the InvisiHead combined with the NatSep  lowers the SDI and reduces pretreatment efforts in SWRO plants.

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                            .    *    

The InvisiHead Features:
After many years of research and development, the InvisiHead system has been optimized and produced. In Elmosa, we invested heavily in finding alternatives to labor and cost-intensive open channel and mesh intake systems. We made a breakthrough in the water intake system technology by developing the InvisiHead, a unique intelligent system with site recognition capability. As soon as it receives pump pulses, it recognizes the site characteristics and operation conditions and commences flow management accordingly

Among the InvisiHead features are:
    * Low approach velocity 0.002 m/s (0.0065 fps) max. at 5 meters away;
    * Low entrance velocity 0.09 m/s (0.3 fps) max;
    * Negligible head loss at 0.17 mm or 0.00017 m;
    * Maximizes pumping efficiency;
    * One piece or component form for assembly at site;
    * Variable flow phases to:
          o Promote head loss reduction that results in:
                + smaller intake pipe,
                + shallower intake basin,
                + less debris inflow,
                + the elimination of the need for backwash;
          o Further reduce debris inflow;
          o Perform self cleansing;
    * Stainless steel  construction
: 316L, duplex or super duplex;
    * Can be supplied with a built-in anti biofouling chemical dispensing system;
    * No screens are used at any stage of the InvisiHead;
    * Adaptability for use in industrial effluent outlets and outfalls;
    * Can be retrofitted to existing systems;
    * Immune to oil spills;
    * Low initial cost - CAPEX;
    * No operating or maintenance costs involved - OPEX;
    * Less debris present in the cooling water including sand, hence lower potential for erosion of heat exchanger tubes and pump vanes;
    * Drastic reduction of chemical consumption including chlorine due to the oxidizable material load reduction;
    * Drastic reduction of entrained air in the cooling water and less oxygen would be present in the water, hence lower potential for corrosion and lower frequency for air evacuation process;
    * Marine life preservation;
    * Maintenance costs of the intake system are much lower, no traveling or fixed screens are included, and therefore, no longer deferential pressure activation mechanism is required, no backwash at all;
    * Higher cooling efficiency since the water brought in from deep locations is cooler than the beach water;
    * Storms have no negative effect on the system or on the operation as a whole,
    * The standard outfall channel is replaced by a much more efficient diffusing system that ensures adequate mixing and efficient heat dispersion,

        o The heat plume does not reach the surface and it is confined to the area close to the point source eliminating any adverse effects on the environment;
   
    * Robust and stable under all weather conditions;

    * Especially fit for use in hurricane regions;
    * Meets and exceeds world-wide environmental requirements.
LEARN MORE
 

Elmosa has done much work in seawater intake system development. We used the environment as a major design factor throughout our research program. We hold several patents, while our research and development continues. We conceived and researched the idea of pre-filtration at the water source. We set up models and conducted model studies in advanced hydraulic labs. We made a breakthrough in the water intake system technology by developing the unique infiltration system. However, we developed the InvisiHead intake head system. It proved to be more stable as time passes and lasts much longer than the Infiltration. It is more versatile and with a super wide range of tolerance. The proven InvisiHead technology is used as an intake head as well an outfall diffuser. It works in both fresh and salt water; capacity unlimited. See testimonials made by international authorities about the Elmosa Seawater Intake and Outfall Systems especially the InvisiHead regarding the engineering, environmental, and economic viabilities. Those testimonials are all keywords to those viabilities

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ABOUT US / Company Profile
American Eco Systems at Work
What We Do

We develop the unique Elmosa seawater intake & marine outfall systems to supply clean water to electric power plants, desalination plants, seawater reverse osmosis plants, petroleum refineries, pulp & paper mills, fish and aquaculture farms,
and to discharge RO brine, cooling water, dredging and turbidity diffusion and decay,
and wastewater dispersion and dilution.

We will be very glad to share our experience with our prospective customers. We have the ability to solve your intake and outfall problems. The Elmosa™ Offshore Intake and outfall Systems are designed to serve the world over
.


Our Services Include:

  • Design and engineer the site-specific InvisiHead and streamline it in order to fit site characteristics and conditions.
  • InvisiHead fabrication, and delivery;
  • InvisiHead installation supervision if needed,
  • Configure the intake pipe by applying the Elmosa Velocity Envelope (EVE) to be self-cleansing and prevent sediment settlement and marine growth inside the pipe and make flow capacity fluctuation-tolerant;
  • Configure the intake downstream end NatSep flow control basin;
  • Configure the discharge pipe;
  • Configure the discharge upstream end outfall structure.

  • The InvisiHead seawater intake velocity cap is selected by the US EPA consultants as the best technology available.
  • The system’s added costs are marginal, and it is usually less expensive and more economical than the conventional systems.
  • t is ideal to be installed in areas designated as fragile and critical such as spawning grounds or special habitats.
  • It is self-operating and no maintenance is required to keep the system in operation.
Our Systems are designed for:
  • Proaction rather than reaction or acting in advance to deal with an expected difficulty rather than reaction to events; 
  • Preservation rather than curing: selective system, local marine currents sweep out SS back to the ambient;
  • Exclusion and Prevention rather than Eradication, no impingement or fish mortality.


Innovations

The InvisiHead is a great seawater intake and discharge innovation. Its uniqueness is demonstrated by two proven facts: 1. Environmental and that is making a safe and peaceful coexistence with the marine neighborhood where the InvisiHead has become a safe home to marine biomass;    2. Economic viability  by being self-reliant and not requiring any operation or maintenance efforts, be it manual or mechanical; a no OPEX feature that saves the expenses to pay down the road the CAPEX.

PPcooling

This is an intake system configured for a 220,000 m3/h power plant to be installed in the Persian Gulf area using 1600mm intake pipe system connecting to 28 InvisiHead systems

The Elmosa seawater technologies are revolutionizing the intake and discharge industry. We are getting response on the industrial level as well as on the academic level.

  • The Elmosa Mother Nature-operated intake system is the only system that makes money and pays back its capital costs;
  • $0 paid for O&M, O&M-free, low capital cost, short payback period, no downtime; see this!
  • Why should you install the InvisiHead?.
  • Why South Wales Next Generation 1,000,000 m3/d RO plant consultant selected the IH system. See why.
  • This virtually unlimited flow capacity intelligent site-recognizing intake head holistically protects aquatic life;
  • no impingement or fish mortality
  • the omni directional round surround, up sideways and down, funneling in InvisiHead is 
    • unattractive to aquatic organisms,
    • sediments,
    • seaweed, or
    • debris;
    • it is selective and delivers clean water;
  • the IH utilizes local marine currents to sweep away and out:
    • seaweeds,
    • fish-small and young,
    • jellyfish,
    • sediments and debris into the ambient again if they enter the InvisiHead.
The no-return flow is at the offset outlet.
  • It is out of phase with the major flow channel by 90 °, thus providing safe passage to marine
  • life to return and get back into the environment again through the opposite end.
  • In its return to the ambient, flow is in phase with the
  • local currents direction, thus all types of onshore mechanical screening-fixed or traveling or both-are no longer required.
  • Negligibly low head loss at about 0.00017m or a pressure drop of 0.017mb means almost 0$ spent on energy in the IH operation.
  • Nearly all pumping energy goes to overcome friction inside the intake pipe.
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As an outfall,
Discharge
  • the InvisiHead safely discharges, disperses, mixes and dilutes RO brine, cooling water, dredging turbidity, and wastewater.
  • The discharges reach equilibrium and disappear into the ambient within the vicinity of the outfall at the beginning of the near field mixing zone.
Diffusion Performance
  • Dispersion of brine discharge from seawater reverse osmosis desalination plants built on the 45 psu  Gulf water will produce a SWRO concentrate of 92 psu dispersal is modeled to demonstrate the InvisiHead brine diffuser performance.

  • Cooling Water Discharge from a power plat withdraws its cooling water from the Gulf is modeled here to demonstrate the InvisiHead diffuser system performance where it discharges, disperses, mixes and dilutes 324,000m3/h of a 2 GW thermal power plant cooling water discharged  with 40°C  cools down to the ambient of 32° in 10m from the point of discharge.
  • The InvisiHead operates in full compliance with the US EPA Section 316(b) of the Clean  Water Act governing the use of cooling water at power plants and industrial facilities (the Final Rule);
  • "Best Available Techniques (BAT) to Industrial Cooling Systems: Dec2001) for the selection, designand operation of cooling watersystems and effluent discharge"
  • The InvisiHead diffuser manges with good performance treated wastewater. Bacteria decays from 17000 col/dl to 17 at 10m from the diffuser and reaches 16 at the edge of the ZID or acute zone 30m away from the diffuser; it reaches 4 col/dl at 200m away from the diffuser . At the edge of the Allocated Impact Zone (AIZ) 300m away it is 3 col/dl and 1.3 at 1500m away.
  • The IH promotes biodiversity values of the site and avoids impacts on spawning grounds, justify the location of the discharge point and confirm that the discharge will not impact water quality and biodiversity values; including native vegetation or fauna;
  • No ecological adverse effects are associated with the InvisiHead. It protects the ecosystem.
The InvisiHead can be retrofitted to dredging boats to control turbidity

PowerPlantCW_dispersion
This is a 220,000m3/h cooling water discharge and dispersion system configured for a 2 GW power plant to be installed in the Persian Gulf area using 1600mm discharge pipe system connecting to 32 InvisiHead systems

Starting January 2013 the InvisiHead flow transition through the sequential 4 flow phases was upgraded to further improve flow quality
and drastically reduce or eliminate flow of sediments or seaweed  if present in the water column; InvisiHead flow velocities:
  1. approach is 0.002m/s (0.0066 fps),
  2.  inlet is 0.09m/s (0.295 fps) max,
  3.  outlet is 0.11-0.12m/s (0.36-0.39 fps),
  4.  InvisiHead/intake pipe interface velocity ranges between 0.9 and 2.9m/s or ( 2.95-9.5fps).
4zeros


NO MORE TROUBLES: Just turn-on the seawater pumps at the pump house and relax.

  • No more clogging.
  • No more pressure drop.
  • No more alarms.
  • No more backwash or air bursting.
  • No more dead fish or any of the aquatic life.
  • No more marine growth or sediments settling in the intake pipe.
  • Simply, no more worries, and
  • no more operation or maintenance.
  All remain in DAY 1 condition for decades to pass.

The InvisiHead is on top of two breakthroughs:

BREAKTHROUGH I: Environmental: Coexistence;

BREAKTHROUGH II: Economic:  Low Capital  Expenditure-CAPEX, No Operational Expenses-OpeX:


BREAKTHROUGH I:
Environmental: Coexistence;The InvisiHead serves as a habitat for marine life and biomass demonstrating peaceful coexistence at its best. It, however, delivers the full

design capacity under all site conditions. This InvisiHead was installed in 2006. It never needed any care or required any operational or maintenance services eversince it was installed. It really defines what proction is: It is acting in advance to deal with an expected difficulty.
coex


BREAKTHROUGH  II
Economic:  Low Capital  Expenditure-CAPEX, No Operational Expenses-OpeX: The InvisiHead makes money through the savings of OpeX. The savings accumulate throughout the years. It ends up paying off the CAPEX in a few years down the road.

IHpay

Milestone dates:

  • 1981/1982 Tthe InvisiHead was conceived, researched and developed at the reputed St. Anthony Falls Hydraulic Lab of the University of Minnesota https://www.safl.umn.edu/;
  • 2002 The InvisiHead has become a BTA as per the US EPA designation;
  • 2005 The structural integrity of the InvisiHead has been also reinforced to stand up to Cat5 hurricane force,
    • The IH systems are made of high grade thick stainless steel plates to preserve structural integrity of the systems and remain in full operation throughout the structure's lifetime.
  • In 2012 AES updated and enhanced the flow streamlining of the InvisiHead Intake and outfall systems and improved the hydraulic tuning of the flow streamlines within the approach, entrance, and outlet phases in order to increase the degree of exclusion of marine life, sediment and debris by deciding the sea floor take off location of the lowermost streamline bundle and redusing the takeoff velocity to be lower than the target sediment grain terminal velocity in order to not to disturb the local neighborhood;
  •  Avoidance: The change in flow pattern created by the InvisiHead triggers more avoidance response mechanisms in fish both juvenile and adult, thereby avoiding their inflow;
  • 2013 The InvisiHead had site and application recognition integrated and was more fine-tuned to better improve flow management; 
  • 2014_water_enters_InvisiHead at 0.09m/s or lower and leaves it at 0.11-0.12m/s to allow supremacy to marine currents to flush out any fish, sediments, or seaweeds if found,
  • 2020 The InvisiHead spread-out type is made to be sandwiched and inserted under ice sheets with an entrance velocity of 0.003m/s (0.01 fps).


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Testimonials

Testimonials made by international authorities since 2002 about the Elmosa Seawater Intake and Outfall Systems especially the InvisiHead regarding the engineering, environmental, and economic viabilities. The testimonials displayed below may look a bit too long but they are all keywords to the three viabilities sddressed by intake and outfall industry regulators. We are quoting here some of what consulting engineers, university professors, and environmental authorities had to say about the Elmosa intake and outfall systems

12US EPA  BTA Technology Candidate

J

http://www.amecosys.com/elmosa/From%20Sunda%20John,%20SAIC,%2007.08.2002.pdf
     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       07/08/2002


saltwater desalinator reviewsUS EPA

Technical Development
Document for the Final Section
316(b) Phase III Rule

Research on velocity cap vendors identified only one vendor, which is located in Canada. (A possible reason for this scarcity in vendors is that many velocity caps are designed and fabricated on a site-specific basis, often called “intake cribs”.) This vendor manufactures a velocity cap called the “Invisihead,” and was contacted for cost information (Elarbash 2002a and 2002b). The Invisihead is designed with a final entrance velocity of 0.3 feet per second and has a curved cross section that gradually increases the velocity as water is drawn farther into the head. The manufacturer states the gradual increase in velocity though the velocity cap minimizes entrainment of sediment and suspended matter and minimizes inlet pressure losses (Elmosa 2002). All costs presented below are in July 2002 dollars   .

Due to the rather large opening, Invisihead performance is not affected by the attachment of Zebra mussels, so no special materials of construction are required where Zebra mussels are present.

https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-04/documents/cooling-water_phase-3_tdd_2006.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         P. 3-79

saltwater desalinator reviewsPUBLIC UTILITIES COMMISSION, STATE OF CALIFORNIA
8. Draft EIR/EIS Comments and Responses
CalAm Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project 8.7-1 ESA / 205335.01
Final EIR/EIS March 2018
8.7 Individual(s) Comments and Responses

 

Seawater intake screening is being improved. The data cited in this DEIR/EIS from 2013 are  out of date for open ocean intake screening. Rotating and traveling screens with intake  velocity of less than .3 ft/sec. to mitigate impingement and entrapment, are now available, eg.  Invisihead by Elmosa Seawater Intake and Outfall Systems; “Water particles start to move toward the Intake Head from all directions with a velocity of about 0.0027 m/s (0.009 fps) max.  5 meters (15 ft) away from the Head entrance. It rises to 0.03 m/s (0.1 fps) max. one meter (3 ft) away. The final entrance velocity is 0.09 m/s (0.3 fps) max. .                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  P. 4   8.7-135

https://nmsmontereybay.blob.core.windows.net/montereybay-prod/media/resourcepro/resmanissues/desal_projects/pdf/180323calam-mpwsp_feireis_ch8.7-index.pdf

saltwater desalinator reviewsBalmoral South Iron Ore Project Public Environmental Review EPA Assessment No 1677, International Minerals Pty Ltd, Australia,
Volume 1 – Main Report and Appendix A

February 2009,
B A L M O R A L S O U T H I R O N O R E P R O J E C T P U B L I C E N V I R O N M E N T A L
R E V I E W

Invitation to Make a Submission, URS

Invitation
The Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) invites people to make a submission on this proposal

1. Elmosa Seawater Intake and Outfall System

The seawater is transported on-shore via a buried HDPE pipeline under natural head pressure. Subject to final design, the seawater intake system and components will resemble Figure 7-6: Typical Seawater Intake System and is described more fully in Sub-section 2.11 of Section 2 - Project Description.
The flow streamlines will be controlled so that the take off velocities of the extreme bottom and the extreme top streamlines into the InvisiHead™ would have no suction effect on the floor and top sediments. At maximum plant capacity, the maximum entrance velocity is 0.091 m/s rising from a maximum approach velocity of 0.0025 m/s. The InvisiHead™ technology surpasses the principles of Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (detailed in European Union Reference Document on the application of Best Available Techniques (BAT) to Industrial Cooling Systems: Dec 2001) for the selection, design and operation of cooling water systems and effluent discharge. The brine discharge system will be similar, except with outflow. An outfall pipeline is proposed to carry concentrated brine and filter backflush water to a discharge diffuser located approximately 1,600 m northeast of Cape Preston, in 7 m of water at Lowest Astronomical Tide. (Figure 2-10)                                                                        URS   P.7-34

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        * 2. The NatSep

The NatSep™ acts as a gravity flow controller and provides passive removal of coarse sediment and debris from the flow. A traveling screen will be installed at the upstream end of the sedimentation zone of the basin.

The depth of the basin will include the calculated head loss in the intake pipeline, the standard tide variation of 4 metres, the 6.5 metre storm surge, plus 2 metres as a margin of safety. The NatSep basin will be installed onshore within the area allocated for the Desalination Plant.


The NatSep basin will remove any sediment 160 microns (0.16 mm) or larger from the flow, including fine sand, seaweed, and debris, which will settle in the sediment storage zone at the bottom of the basin. The basin is made of two bays; each 100% of the capacity, so that the intake system remains in full operation during clean up of the sediment storage area.


The basin is divided into 5 distinctive zones: The inlet zone or the stabilisation and energy dissipation zone located upstream of the basin, three zones located at the middle of the basin including the flow through zone, the sedimentation zone, the sediment storage zone, and the outlet zone.
                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    URS   P. 2.41


saltwater desalinator reviews19 Conclusion
The aim of this project was to determine if a desalination plant could be cost effective and sustainable whilst minimising the environmental impact and protecting Sydney‟s natural water supplies. This was achieved by designing a sea water reverse osmosis desalination plant with the capacity to supply up to half of Sydney‟s daily water demand (9.9x105m3/day). The key components of this design are as follows.

The plant will utilise a split partial second pass reverse osmosis treatment process with an energy recovery system. This is combined with micro screening and ultra-filtration membrane pretreatment and a re-mineralisation with disinfection post-treatment. This process has been designed to utilise the most energy efficient technologies currently available whilst minimising running costs.

The inlet has been designed with the main aim of limiting ecological disruption to the Tasman Sea. This is achieved by using a passive system that keeps surrounding deep sea currents to a minimum. This will be done using Elmosa‟s InvisiHead system which has been approved by the Australian Ministry of the Environment and the Environment Public Authority.

The outlet will use a revolutionary out fall where by the effluent is transported back into the sea under gravity, thus negating the need for a pressurised pipe network. This also makes use of Elmosa‟s InvisiHead system to minimise the mixing zone surrounding the outlet.

The delivery system into the Sydney drinking water network made maximum use of existing infrastructure by utilising the existing distribution pipe constructed for the original desalination plant. This resulted in reduced costs and impact on the environment and local community, as only a single pipeline had to be laid to accommodate the increase in possible water production compared to the original plant.

To reduce the amount of spoil having to be transported off site, it was decided to raise the ground level of the site, using the spoil from the pipeline construction processes, to 6.25m above sea level. This had the added advantage of protecting the site from the effects of projected sea level rise. It was deemed that piling was the most suitable foundation method to support the weight of the main plant buildings. Secant piled walls were utilised where excavations went below the sea level to achieve a water tight seal around the construction site.

The main plant building that houses the desalination treatment process will be constructed using a number of portal frames to cover the large spans. To simplify the construction process the same portal frame design was used to construct the reception building. The pump stations were all constructed with a masonry wall with piers, supporting a flat reinforced concrete roof. By utilizing simple construction processes the cost of building the plant is kept to a minimum, thus making the project more cost effective.

Section 19                                                                   Author: Group                                                    P. 147

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saltwater desalinator reviews8. Draft EIR/EIS Comments and Responses
CalAm Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project 8.7-1 ESA / 205335.01
Final EIR/EIS March 2018
8.7 Individual(s) Comments and Responses

 

Seawater intake screening is being improved. The data cited in this DEIR/EIS from 2013 are  out of date for open ocean intake screening. Rotating and traveling screens with intake  velocity of less than .3 ft/sec. to mitigate impingement and entrapment, are now available, eg. nvisihead by Elmosa Seawater Intake and Outfall Systems; “Water particles start to move
toward the Intake Head from all directions with a velocity of about 0.0027 m/s (0.009 fps) max. 5 meters (15 ft) away from the Head entrance. It rises to 0.03 m/s (0.1 fps) max. one meter (3 ft) away. The final entrance velocity is 0.09 m/s (0.3 fps) max.

https://nmsmontereybay.blob.core.windows.net/montereybay-prod/media/resourcepro/resmanissues/desal_projects/pdf/180323calam-mpwsp_feireis_ch8.7-index.pdf

4
8.7-135

saltwater desalinator reviewsComparison

Conventional Linear Diffusion vs. the Round Surround InvisiHead Diffusion

 

MINERALOGY PTY. LTD

Balmoral South Iron Ore Project
Response to Public Submissions
Assessment No.1677
Mineralogy Pty Ltd
Document BSP-780-EN-REP-0110.1
Australia, June 2009

 

Response to Public Submissions

http://www.amecosys.com/elmosa/BSP-780-EN-REP-0110.pdf

Vol. I.

P. 4.1

Site selection investigations were based on three key elements in order to meet the
proposal’s objectives.
These being:
• that the brine discharge mixing zone be limited to an area of four hectares or less,
• that sensitive habitats are protected from the operation of the outfall pipeline and diffuser, and
• that the diffuser and outfall pipeline can be adequately stabilised to protect against cyclone damage”.

The investigations by GEMS into the selection of the outfall site (PER Appendix F, sub-Appendix C, Section
1.1, page 8) identified two possible locations for the outfall that met the criteria listed above. The final site selection for the BSIOP brine outfall is “Location B”, which meets all criteria listed above.
Near Field modelling of the proposed diffuser design is used to predict initial mixing and the efficiency of the outfall diffuser, expressed as number of dilutions at the edge of the near firld mixing zone. In common practice this modelling is used to inform the design of the diffuser and the location of the outlet. Modelling is also used to calculate an appropriate size and dimension for the LEPA. Design of diffuser: No near-field modelling is provided in the PER to describe the expected performance of the diffuser. Modelling of discharge is based on a conventional jetted diffuser 150m long. The PER proposes an “InvisiHead” diffuser installation.

Modelling of the BSIOP brine outfall diffusion was based upon a conventional jetted diffuser design to cater for the inherent restrictions associated with the USEPA PLUMES computer model used to calculate nearfield diffuser performance. The PLUMES model will only address the near-field distribution of a linear conventional jetted diffuser, and not the preferred multi-direction low-velocity installation proposed within the BSIOP PER.

Far-field distribution has been calculated using the PLUME3D model. PLUME3D is a lagrangian random walk far-field plume dispersion model which obtains oceanic conditions from GCOM3D (described below) and includes 3D plume dispersion algorithms for modelling the far-field behaviour of a wide variety of discharge materials including sediments, sewerage, thermal discharges, oils and chemicals, accounting for processes such as dispersion and dissolution, under defined release conditions (quantity, rate etc).

GEMS 3-D Coastal Ocean Model (GCOM3D) is an advanced, fully three-dimensional, ocean-circulation model that determines horizontal and vertical hydrodynamic circulation due to wind stress, atmospheric pressure gradients, astronomical tides, quadratic bottom friction and ocean thermal structure. GCOM3D is fully functional anywhere in the world using tidal constituent and bathymetric data derived from global, regional and local databases.

GEMS have confirmed that the design of the diffuser does not impact upon the far-field results generated by the PLUME3D computer model. Remodelling of the BSIOP brine outfall plume using the Invisihead design has been commissioned by Mineralogy to confirm this using the parameters listed below (Table 3-11). Results of the modelling show that the far-field plume behaviour and distribution is unaffected by the diffuser design (see Appendix D of this report).                                                                                                                                                                                                                        P. 51 of 79

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saltwater desalinator reviews

Australian EPA and EU Environmernt described it as BAT

URS

Balmoral South Iron Ore Project, Australia
Public Environmental Review
EPA Assessment No 1677

What the Australian EPA said about the InvisiHead: The IH technology surpasses the principles of Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (detailed in European Union Reference Document on the application of Best Available
Techniques (BAT) to Industrial Cooling Systems: Dec 2001) for the selection, design and operation of cooling water systems and effluent discharge

http://www.epa.wa.gov.au/sites/default/files/PER_documentation/A1677_R1340_PER_PER_Rev1_090227.pdf 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   URS 2-40, 41, 6-8, 7-34

saltwater desalinator reviewsComparison

Conventional Linear Diffusion vs. the Round Surround InvisiHead Diffusion

 

MINERALOGY PTY. LTD

Balmoral South Iron Ore Project
Response to Public Submissions
Assessment No.1677
Mineralogy Pty Ltd
Document BSP-780-EN-REP-0110.1
Australia, June 2009

 

Response to Public Submissions

http://www.amecosys.com/elmosa/BSP-780-EN-REP-0110.pdf


ASE Contact

saltwater desalinator reviews4.2

Modelling of the BSIOP brine outfall diffusion was based upon a conventional jetted diffuser design to cater for the inherent restrictions associated with the USEPA PLUMES computer model used to calculate nearfield diffuser performance. The PLUMES model will only address the near-field distribution of a linear conventional jetted diffuser, and not the preferred multi-direction low-velocity installation proposed within the BSIOP PER.

Far-field distribution has been calculated using the PLUME3D model. PLUME3D is a lagrangian random walk far-field plume dispersion model which obtains oceanic conditions from GCOM3D (described below) and includes 3D plume dispersion algorithms for modelling the far-field behaviour of a wide variety of discharge materials including sediments, sewerage, thermal discharges, oils and chemicals, accounting for processes such as dispersion and dissolution, under defined release conditions (quantity, rate etc).

GEMS 3-D Coastal Ocean Model (GCOM3D) is an advanced, fully three-dimensional, ocean-circulation model that determines horizontal and vertical hydrodynamic circulation due to wind stress, atmospheric pressure gradients, astronomical tides, quadratic bottom friction and ocean thermal structure. GCOM3D is fully functional anywhere in the world using tidal constituent and bathymetric data derived from global, regional and local databases. GEMS have confirmed that the design of the diffuser does not impact upon the far-field results generated by the PLUME3D computer model. Remodelling of the BSIOP brine outfall plume using the Invisihead design has been commissioned by Mineralogy. Results of the modelling show that the far-field plume behaviour and distribution is unaffected by the diffuser design (see Appendix D of this report).                                                                                                                                   

P. 54 of 79

 

saltwater desalinator reviews4.3

GEMS testimonial start in the same pdf following P. 79 of MINERALOGY PTY. LTD version

GEMS
G L O B A L E N V I R O N M E N T A L M O D E L L I N G S Y S T E M S
G L O B A L E N V I R O N M E N T A L M O N I T O R I N G S Y S T E M S

CAPE PRESTON
DESALINATION PLANT BRINE DISCHARGE MODELLING STUDY
on behalf of International Minerals P/L

June 2009

Vol. II

http://www.amecosys.com/elmosa/BSP-780-EN-REP-0110.pdf

 

Figure 2 Proposed Cape Preston port design and the IM and CPMM brine outfall locations (IM1
and IM2 are the two proposed “Invisihead” diffusers.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                P. 27

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saltwater desalinator reviews4.4

5.3 IM DIFFUSER DESIGN
The proposed IM outfall diffuser is very different to the CPMM diffuser. Instead of utilizing a traditional linear port design with ports spaced evenly down the diffuser pipe, IM plans to install two “Invisihead” diffusers 50 metres apart along the outfall pipe. These diffusers operate differently to a diffuser with a line of ports across the dominant flow direction as the “Invisihead” diffuser head is circular with a continuous horizontal opening divided into 10 separate ports equally spaced around the head (Figure 19).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      P. 27

saltwater desalinator reviews4.5

Figure 19 A single “Invisihead” outfall diffuser
The following quotation from the manufacturer concerning the installation of an “Invisihead” intake and outfall configuration in offshore conditions provides further details concerning this type of diffuser:
“The InvisiHead outfall would have the same intake criteria except that it works in reverse. The brine plume dispersion would be evenly and super slowly funneled out of the outfall so as to attain ambient conditions within a few meters from the outlet point source. The InvisiHead outfall meets and exceeds all the international environmental codes. The outfall should be constructed close to the sea floor and may terminate at the 6 meter depth. The outfall should be located at the leeside of the most dominant submarine currents. However, due to excellent properties of 3- D omni directional plume dispersion performed by the InvisiHead outfall, recirculation of effluent is highly unlikely especially if the InvisiHead outfall diffuser is installed about 100 meters away from the InvisiHead intake head.

 

saltwater desalinator reviews4.6
2 InvisiHead intake head systems should be installed to deliver 110,000m3/d of seawater, and the same for outfall discharge. Each unit is about 4.5 meters in diameter. The maximum entrance velocity is 0.091m/s. The maximum velocity allowed by the Clean Water Act of the US Environmental Protection Agency is 0.15 m/s. It is the lowest enforced regulation worldwide. The future expansion of the desalination plant will be dealt with separately.


Due to the extreme weather conditions existing at the region of operations, the InvisiHead systems should be well anchored to the sea bottom. The support legs built in the InvisiHead should be bolted to a heavy concrete block or piles in order for the structure to remain stable and to maintain the delivery of the design capacity. The system should be designed to remain in full operation during severe weather conditions.


The structural integrity of the IH will not be affected by the severe weather conditions including the cyclonic actions and the high waves. The InvisiHead is made of thick stainless steel plates.”

 

For the IM discharge simulations, PLUME3D was configured to represent this circular discharge port arrangement for the two “Invisihead” diffusers. The basic parameters used to setup the diffusers within
PLUME3D are summarised in Table 3.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  P. 28

 

saltwater desalinator reviews4.7

5.5.2 STUDIES OF INITIAL DILUTION OF THE IM BRINE DISCHARGE WITH THE USEPA PLUMES MODEL Logically similar studies should be carried out for the IM diffuser configuration in order to compare the results with those obtained for the CPMM diffuser. Unfortunately this was not possible as the USEPA Plumes Model does not enable a representation of a circular diffuser head such as the “Invisihead” diffuser.

The GEMS PLUME3D model was able to be modified to represent the “Invisihead” diffuser but the USEPA Plumes Model is a “black box” and cannot be changed by the user.                                           P.33

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saltwater desalinator reviews4.8

6              CONCLUSIONS 

 

This study has examined the behavior of the brine discharge from the International Minerals desalination plant at Cape Preston. With the desalination plant working at maximum capacity the brine will be discharged at 8500 m3/hour with an expected salinity of 79 ppt into receiving waters with an average salinity of 37 ppt. The operation of the discharge has been simulated with the CPMM desalination plant discharging simultaneously to investigate whether there are any cumulative outcomes.


The criteria adopted to define the mixing zone for the IM brine discharge in these studies was the same as that applied, via Ministerial Statement 635, to the CPMM brine discharge. These criteria were that
the region within which the plume is diluted at least 22 times for 99% of the time and that this region must not exceed 4 hectares in area. To be conservative, the number of dilutions modelled in this study
was doubled to 45.


The proposed IM outfall diffuser is very different to the CPMM diffuser. Instead of utilizing a traditional linear port design with ports spaced evenly down the diffuser pipe (22 x 2.4m apart in the case of
CPMM), IM plans to install two “Invisihead” diffusers 50 metres apart along the outfall pipe. These diffusers operate differently to a diffuser with a line of ports across the dominant flow direction as the “Invisihead” diffuser head is circular with a continuous horizontal opening divided into 10 separate ports equally spaced around the head.


The US EPA PLUMES model is unable to provide information on the near-field dilution characteristics of the “Invisihead” diffuser due to design configuration. To investigate the near- and far-field dispersion of the IM brine discharge the GEMS PLUME3D model was configure with 2 diffusers, 50m apart, representing the characteristics of the “Invisihead” diffuser.


Given that the currents in the region of the diffuser are highly bi-directional, and that the diffuser extends approximately 50 metres across the flow, the maximum mixing zone dimensions allowed (4 Ha)
would be expected to be something like 100 x 400 metres. The major results of modelling 12 months of both the IM and CPMM desalination plants discharging brine into the waters off Cape Preston were:

After the IM brine plume is discharged from the “Invisihead” diffuser it sinks to the bottom within a radius of 20m and enters the far-field hovering near the seabed;
Analysis of the 12 months of operation indicates that the adopted conservative (45 dilutions) mixing zone area is approximately 3.7 hectares;
Finally, due to the prevailing (quite different) current flow directions across the IM and CPMM diffusers, and to the level of mixing being achieved within 20 metres of the diffuser, there is no chance that waters with elevated salinity from one outfall will impact on the mixing zone of the other outfall                                                                                                                                                                            Page  | 39

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